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Models:

Ravn, H.: The OptiWaste model structure, 2015

The KISS waste model, beta version 1, September 2015

Sørensen, B.L.: KISS waste tool manual and tutorial (draft), 2015

Sørensen, B.L.: Avoided material marginals. LCI data for KISS waste excel model, 2015

The FRIDA model 2016

The FRIDA model 2012 version 1.1: Downlod ZIP file (Requires Excel 2007 or newer. In case of problems, please contact Frits Møller Andersen (fman@dtu.dk) or Helge Larsen (hela@dtu.dk))

PhD theses:

Habib, K.: Critical Resources in Clean Energy Technologies and Waste Flows. University of Southern Denmark, 2015

Bernstad Saraiva Schott, A.: Household food waste management - Evaluation of current status and potential improvements using life-cycle assessment methodology. Lund University, 2012

Reports:

Andersen, F.M.; Cimpan, C.; Dall, O.; Habib, K.; Holmboe, B.; Münster, M.; Pizarro, A. and Wenzel, H.: Final report TOPWASTE, Department of Management Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, 2016

Cimpan, C. and Wenzel, H.: Foreground systems report. System descriptions and LCI data for the KiSS model. University of Southern Denmark, 2015

Cimpan, C.; Rothmann, M. and Wenzel, H.: Material flow analysis, carbon footprint and economic assessment of alternative collection and treatment of domestic household waste from the region of Funen, Denmark. Centre for Life Cycle Engineering, University of Southern Denmark. Report 2015-01

Cimpan, C.; Rothmann, M. and Wenzel, H.: Materialestrømsanalyse, carbon footprint og økonomisk vurdering af alternative veje til indsamling og behandling af fynsk husholdningsaffald. SDU Livscykluscenter, Syddansk Universitet, Report 2015-02.

Dall, O. et al.: TOPWASTE economic data documentation, October 2015.

Salvucci, R. and Münster, M.: TOPWASTE Background Energy Scenarios (draft version) - 2035 and 2050. Department of Management Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, 2015.

Wenzel, H. and Hamelin, L.: Identifying marginal biomass supply and its carbon footprint under varying future framework conditions. Centre for Life Cycle Engineering, University of Southern Denmark. Report 2015-03.

Related reports:

Andersen, F.M.; Larsen, H.V.; Graasbøll, S. and Nørby, E.: Fremskrivning af generering og behandling af affald - Frida 2015

Articles:

Bernstad, A.; la Cour Jansen, J. and Wenzel, H.: Identification of decisive factors for greenhouse gas emissions in comparative lifecycle assessments of food waste management - an analytical review (Journal of Cleaner Production, Vol. 119, 15 April 2016, pp. 13–24)

Cimpan, C.; Maul, A.; Wenzel, H.; and Pretz T.: Insight into economies of scale for waste packaging sorting plants (Submitted to Journal of Cleaner Production, 2015)

Habib, K., Parajuly, K and Wenzel, H.: Tracking the flow of resources in electronic waste – the case of end-of-life computer hard disk drives (Environmental Science & Technology 49(20), 2015: 12441-12449)

Habib, K and Wenzel, H.: Reviewing resource criticality assessment from a dynamic and technology specific perspective – using the case of direct-drive wind turbines (Journal of Cleaner Production, 2015)

Holmboe, B.: Fra miljøproblem til ressourceeffektivitet. Perspektiver for organiseringen af affaldet. Arbejdsnotat til arbejdspakke 1. 2015

Machacek, E., Richter, J. L., Habib, K and Klossek, P.: Recycling of rare earths from fluorescent lamps: Value analysis of closing-the-loop under demand and supply uncertainties (Resources, Conservation & Recycling 104, 2015, pp. 76-93)

Cimpan, C.; Rothmann, M,; Hamelin, L. and Wenzel, H.: Towards increased recycling of household waste: Documenting cascading effects and material efficiency of commingled recyclables and biowaste collection (Journal of Environmental Management, Vol 157, 2015, pp. 69-83)

Cimpan, C., Maul, A., Jansen, M., Pretz, T., and Wenzel, H.: Central sorting and recovery of MSW recyclable materials: A review of technological state-of-the-art, cases, practice and implications for materials recycling (Journal of Environmental Management 156, 2015, 181-199)

Münster, M.; Ravn, H.; Hedegaard, K.; Juul, N.; Ljunggren Söderman, M.: Economic and environmental optimization of waste treatment (Waste Management, Vol 38, April 2015, pp. 486-495)

Habib, K and Wenzel, H. 2015. A dynamic perspective on geopolitical supply risk of metals. Journal of Cleaner Production. Under review.

Sørensen, B.L.; Dall, O.L.; Habib, K.: Environmental and resource implications of phosphorus recovery from waste activated sludge (Waste Management, Vol. 45, November 2015, pp. 391-399)

Habib, K., Schibye, P.K., Vestbø, A.P., Dall, O.L and Wenzel, H.: Material Flow Analysis of NdFeB magnets for Denmark: A comprehensive waste flow sampling and analysis approach. (Environmental Science & Technology 48, 2014, pp. 12229–12237)

Hill, A.; Dall, O.; Andersen, F.: Modelling Recycling Targets: Achieving a 50% Recycling Rate for Household Waste in Denmark (Journal of Environmental Protection, Vol 5 (7), May 2014, pp. 627-636)

Habib, K.; Wenzel, H.: Exploring rare earths supply constraints for the emerging clean energy technologies and the role of recycling (Journal of Cleaner Production, Vol 84, December 2014, pp. 348-359)

Münster, M.; Finnveden, G.; Wenzel, H.: Future waste treatment and energy systems – examples of joint scenarios (Waste Management, Vol 33 (11), November 2013, pp. 2457-2464)

Juul, N.; Münster, M.; Ravn, H.; Ljunggren Söderman, M.: Challenges when performing economic optimization of waste treatment: A review (Waste Management, Vol 33 (9), September 2013, pp. 1918-1925)

Cimpan, C.; Wenzel, H. : Energy implications of mechanical and mechanical–biological treatment compared to direct waste-to-energy (Waste Management, Vol 33 (7), July 2013, pp. 1648–1658)

Andersen, F.M; Larsen, H.V: FRIDA: A model for the generation and handling of solid waste in Denmark (Resources, Conservation and Recycling, Vol 65, August 2012, p. 47-56)

Conference proceedings:

Münster, M.; Pizarro, A.R.; Salvucci, R.; Cimpan, C.; Wenzel, H. and Ravn, H.: Joint optimisation of the future Danish waste and energy system (15th International Waste Management and Landfill Symposium in Cagliari, Sardini, 5-9 October 2015) (for more info: maem@dtu.dk)

Abstract
In this article the impact of the future development of the energy system on the feasibility of waste treatment options is analysed. In the article two different optimization tools are used: a regional electricity model (Balmorel) and a national waste treatment and district heating model (OptiWaste). When performing optimization by minimizing the socio-economic costs, into future energy systems with high wind power production, it proves feasible primarily to incinerate waste in large scale combined heat and power (CHP) plants, whereas more incineration takes place in decentralized CHP plants in future scenarios with higher biomass consumption, where the average heat prices are higher. In both scenarios, biogas produced from organic waste is upgraded and fed into the natural gas grid and waste is incinerated rather than being centrally sorted in a material recovery facility.

 

Pizarro, A.R.; Münster, M.; Salvucci, R.; Söderman, M.L. and Ravn, H.: What is the future potential for imports of combustible municipal waste to countries with extensive district heating networks? - A case study of Denmark (15th International Waste Management and Landfill Symposium in Cagliari, Sardini, 5-9 October 2015) (for more info: aroal@dtu.dk)

Abstract
In Europe landfilling is the most widely used method for managing municipal solid waste. By constrart, the northern European waste market is characterized by high capacities from energy recovery plants, mostly incineration in cogeneration facilities. In Denmark, there is an overcapacity of incineration plants and this study aims to analyse if import of waste is beneficial during an interim period to divert landfilling or if it might be profitable to invest in overcapacity in the long-term in those countries where heat from incineration can be recovered. The energy and waste management system are described through linking of mathematical models, taking a holistic approach. In the short-term it pays off to import waste, avoiding landfilling; however, in the longer-term, benefits from waste trading will depend on the price of heat markets.

 

Cimpan, C., Maul, A., M., Wenzel, H., Pretz, T.: Insight into economies of scale for waste packaging sorting plants (30th International Conference on Solid Waste Technology and Management, Philadelphia, U.S.A., March 2015) (for more info: cic@kbm.sdu.dk)

Abstract
This contribution presents the results of a techno-economic analysis performed for
German Materials Recovery Facilities (MRFs) which sort commingled lightweight packaging waste (consisting of plastics, metals, beverage caitons and other composite packaging). The study addressed the impo1tance of economies of scale and discussed complementary relations occurring between capacity size, technology level and operational practice. Processing costs (capital and operational expenditure) per unit waste input were found to decrease from above 100 € for small plants with a basic technology level to 60-70 € for large plants employing advanced process flows. Typical operational practice, often riddled with inadequate process parameters was compared with planned or designed operation. The former was found to significantly influence plant efficiency and therefore possible revenue streams from the sale of output material streams.

 

Pizarro Alonso, A.R.; Münster, M.: Optimising waste treatment and energy systems - focusing on spatial and temporal issues (Conference on Energy and Environment for the Future, Copenhagen, Denmark, November 24-25, 2014) (for more info: maem@dtu.dk)

Abstract
The aim of the TOPWASTE project is to evaluate current and future optimal treatment of waste fractions in terms of economy and the environment, with a focus on recycling versus Waste-to-Energy technologies.
After optimization of the waste management system, results must be analysed so as to identify drivers and barriers that efficient waste utilization in Denmark is facing and discuss the economic and/or environmental benefits that might arise from a change of the current waste management system.

 

Pizarro Alonso, A.R.; Münster, M.; Petrovic, S.: Spatial issues when optimising waste treatment and energy systems - A Danish case study (5th International Symposium on Energy from Biomass and Waste, Venice, Italy, November 17-20, 2014) (for more info: maem@dtu.dk)

Abstract
This study addresses the challenge of including geographical information related to waste resources, energy demands and production plants, and transport options in the optimization of waste management. It analyses how waste may serve as an energy source through thermal conversion and anaerobic digestion. The relation to the energy sector is taken into account. The geographically specific potentials and utilization possibilities of waste are taken into account. Thus, the relative location of the resources (in this study waste and manure for codegestion) is accounted for. Also the location of the resources relative to their utilization (in this study mainly the location of district heating networks) is considered. The temporal dimension is important for the energy sector which displays distinct variations over the year, week and day, and this is reflected by a subdivision of the extension of the year. The study provides an analysis of the Danish waste and energy systems with a spatial and temporal resolution.

 

Münster, M.; Ravn, H.; Hedegaard, K.; Juul, N.; Ljunggren Söderman, M.: Economic Optimization of Waste Treatment and Energy Production in Denmark (14th International Waste Management and Landfill Symposium, Sardinia, Italy, September 30 - October 4, 2013) (for more info: maem@dtu.dk)

Abstract
This article presents an optimization model that incorporates LCA methodology and captures important characteristics of waste management systems. The most attractive waste management options are in the model identified as part the optimization. The model renders it possible to apply different optimization objectives such as minimizing costs or greenhouse gas emissions or to prioritise several objectives given different weights. An illustrative case is analyzed, covering alternative treatments of 1 tonne residual household waste: incineration of the full amount or sorting out organic waste for biogas production for either CHP generation or as fuel in vehicles. The case study illustrates, that what is the optimal solution depends on the objective and assumptions regarding the background system – here illustrated with different assumptions regarding displaced electricity production. The article shows that it is feasible to combine LCA approaches with optimization and highlights the need for including the integrated waste and energy system into the model.

 

Cimpan, C.; Rothmann, M.; Pedersen, N.; Wenzel, H.: The effects of dual-stream commingled collection of recyclables from households in Sønderborg, Denmark (2nd International Conference WASTES: Solutions, Treatments and Opportunities, Braga, Portugal, September 11–13, 2013) (for more info: cic@kbm.sdu.dk)

Abstract
One year after its introduction in the municipality of Sønderborg, the kerbside collection of commingled recyclable materials from households has significantly altered waste flows and treatment opportunities. This study evaluates the consequences of these changes and compares the performance of the previous and current waste management systems in the municipality in terms of primary energy and greenhouse gas emission savings. In the new systems approx. 65% more materials are collected for recycling (an increase from 18% to 30% in the share of domestic household waste). The corresponding decrease in residual waste, which is used for energy production in the local waste CHP plant, is being compensated by import of industrial waste from northern Germany. The results of this study credit the new management system with an increase of 8-26% in primary energy and 5-33% in GHG emissions savings over the old management system, depending on the exclusion/inclusion of implications related to imported waste amounts in the system analysis.

 

Hill, A.L.: Liberalization in the Danish waste sector: An institutional perspective (2nd International Conference WASTES: Solutions, Treatments and Opportunities, Braga, Portugal, September 11– 13, 2013) (for more info: alhill@plan.aau.dk)

Abstract
Denmark is regarded as having a very efficient waste sector, with high levels of incineration with energy recovery, high recycling rates and very low landfilling rates. On the other hand, Denmark also has the highest rate of MSW production per capita and has not yet achieved a decoupling of waste production and economic activity which is one of the main goals of the Waste Framework Directive [1]. In 2012, as part of the EU agenda to create a single market, changes were made to EU waste legislation allowing source separated industrial waste that is suitable for incineration to be traded on a European market. This change has broad implications for the Danish waste sector which is characterised as highly regulated and with municipal responsibility to treat all waste. This paper uses the Institutional Analysis and Development framework to map the institutions of the Danish waste sector and to analyse how those institutions influence the liberalization of the sector.

 

Sørensen, B.L.; Dall, O.L.: Life cycle assesment of phosphorous recovery from sewage sludge (6th International Conference on Life Cycle Management, Gothenburg 2013) (for more info: bls@kbm.sdu.dk)

Abstract
The Danish waste treatment plant for hazardous waste “Nordgroup a/s” plans to recover phosphorus from waste water sludge. The presented LCA study indicates that environmental impacts by phosphorous recovery in an energy efficient process are at the same level or lower than through the reuse of sewage sludge applied directly on farmland. The recovery method is based on drying and thermal gasification of activated sewage sludge followed by extraction of phosphorous from the ashes. The obtained product can be used as a fertilizer replacing similar products on the market. The conclusion is that the general rule according to waste hierarchy, where re-use is preferable to material and energy recovery, is wrong in this case.

 

Dall, O.L.; Naamansen, E.T.; Wenzel, H.: Carbon footprint for hazardous waste incineration (Fourth International Symposium on Energy from Biomass and Waste, Venice, Italy, November 12-15, 2012) (for more info: old@kbm.sdu.dk)

Abstract
Kommunekemi A/S (KK) operates a large incinerator plant for hazardous waste in Denmark. The Carbon footprint takes offset in the ISO 14044 standard for LCA, but is limited to account for greenhous gas (GHG) emissions. The LCA principles are based on consequential thinking which means allocation is replaced by relevant system expansions. The consequential approach also requires use of market marginal data instead of average datasets. The general model has been used since 2007 for annual environmental reportings. The Carbon footprint calculation tool has been tested on all specific waste streams incinerated at KK in 2011, which has shown the model to give consistent results. For KK the model will be further developed to cover new processes.

 

Münster, M.; Finnveden, G.; Wenzel, H.: Future waste treatment and energy production – an example of development of joint scenarios (Fourth International Symposium on Energy from Biomass and Waste, Venice, Italy, November 12-15, 2012) (for more info: maem@dtu.dk)

Abstract
Development and use of scenarios for large interdisciplinary projects is a complicated task. The article gives practical examples of how this has been done in two projects addressing waste management and energy issues respectively. Based on experiences from the two projects, recommendations are made for an approach for development of scenarios dealing with both waste management and energy issues. It is recommended to develop and use overall scenarios for the common project and leave room for sub-scenarios in parts of the project and to combine different types of scenarios to adapt to the methods and tools of different disciplines. Furthermore, it is recommended to develop and use explorative external scenarios based on possible marginals as a framework for consequential life cycle assessment (LCA).The approach is illustrated for an ongoing Danish research project.

 

Juul, N.; Münster, M.; Ravn, H.; Ljunggren Söderman, M.: Challenges when Performing Economic Optimization of Waste Treatment (1st International Conference on Wastes: Solutions, Treatments and Opportunities, Guimarpes, Portugal, September 12-14, 2011) (for more info: maem@dtu.dk)

Abstract
New investments in waste treatment facilities are needed due to a number of factors including continuously increasing waste amounts, political demands for efficient utilization of the waste resources in terms of recycling or energy production, and decommissioning of existing waste treatment facilities due to age and stricter environmental regulation. Optimization models can assist in ensuring that these investment strategies will be economically feasible. Various economic optimization models for waste treatment have been developed which focus on different parameters. Models focusing on transport are one example but models focusing on energy production have also been developed as well as models which take into account the plants economies of scale, environmental impact, material recovery and social costs. Finally, models combining different criteria for selection of waste treatment methods in multi criteria analysis have been developed. A thorough updated review of the existing models is presented and the main challenges and the crucial parameters to take into account when assessing the economic performance of waste treatment alternatives are identified. The review article will assist both policy makers and model developers involved in assessing economic performance of waste treatment alternatives.
Presentations:

Münster, M.; Pizarro Alonso, A.R.; Salvucci, R.; Ravn, H.: What is the impact of different energy futures on the optimal waste treatment? Book of Abstracts. (Oral presentation at DTU's Sustain Conference 2015. Lyngby, Technical University of Denmark, 17 December 2015) (for more info: maem@dtu.dk)

Pizarro Alonso, A.R.; Münster, M.: What is the future potential for imports of combustible waste to countries with extensive district heating networks? A case study of Denmark / What is the optimal treatment of the organic fraction of waste depending on the energy system? (Oral presentations at the 15th International Waste Management and Landfill Symposium in Cagliari, Sardini, 5-9 October 2015) (for more info: aroal@dtu.dk)

Pizarro Alonso, A.R.: Waste management with multiple objectives - a Danish case (Oral presentation at the Meeting of the European Working Group in Multiple Criteria Decision Aiding - Decision-making problems in sustainable development, Odense, Denmark, 24-25 September, 2015) (for more info: aroal@dtu.dk)

Habib, K. and Wenzel, H.: Tracking the mass flow of rare earth elements in a Danish WEEE pre-processing plant (Oral presentation at the International Society for Industrial Ecology (ISIE, 2015) conference in Surrey, UK, 7–10 July, 2015) (for more info: koh@kbm.sdu.dk)

Cimpan, C., Maul, A., M., Wenzel, H., Pretz, T.: Insight into economies of scale for waste packaging sorting plants (Oral presentation at the 30th International Conference on Solid Waste Technology and Management, Philadelphia, U.S.A., March 2015) (for more info: cic@kbm.sdu.dk)

Habib, K and Wenzel, H.: Value added Material Flow Analysis of NdFeB magnets in Denmark. (Oral presentation at the EcoBalance 2014 conference in Tsukuba, Japan, 27-30 October, 2014) (for more info: koh@kbm.sdu.dk)

Habib, K and Wenzel, H.: Exploring rare earths supply constraints for a full global penetration of renewable energy: Case of wind turbines and electric vehicles. (Oral presentation at the 1st European Conference on Rare Earths (ERES) in Milos, Greece, 4-7 September, 2014) (for more info: koh@kbm.sdu.dk)

Habib, K.: Exploring the recovery potential of rare earth elements from waste flows in Denmark. (Oral presentation at the DAKS seminar: From Waste to Value at DTU-Risø, Denmark, 12 June, 2014) (for more info: koh@kbm.sdu.dk)

Habib, K., Schibye, P.K., Wenzel, H and Vestbø, A.P.: Material Flow Analysis of NdFeB magnets in Hard Disk Drives: Case study of Denmark. (Poster presented at International Electronics Recycling Congress in Austria, 22-24 January, 2014) (for more info: koh@kbm.sdu.dk)

Habib, K.; Wenzel, H.: Critical resources for emerging clean energy technologies: case study of wind turbines (Oral presentation at World Resource Forum (WRF) 2012 in Beijing, China, 21–23 October, 2012) (for more info: koh@kbm.sdu.dk)

Jeppesen, N.P.N.; Habib, K.; Wenzel, H.: Critical resources for emerging battery technologies for hybrid and electric vehicles (Poster presentation at The ISWA World Solid Waste Congress, 2012 in Florence, Italy, 17–19 September, 2012) (for more info: koh@kbm.sdu.dk)

Wenzel, H.: Food for thought: The bigger picture (Oral presentation at Conference of Life Cycle Thinking - The dusk or dawn of a more sustainable world? ERM Conference in London, UK, May 2012) (for more info: henrik.wenzel@kbm.sdu.dk)

Wenzel, H.: Carbon constraints and waste sector implications (Oral presentation at Second Waste and Climate Beacon Conference - Messages to COP 18, ISWA, in Copenhagen, Denmark, 19-20 April 2012) (for more info: henrik.wenzel@kbm.sdu.dk)

Media:

Enige eksperter: Der er masser af arbejdspladser og udvikling i brugt elektronik (Article in Ingeniøren, 23 December, 2013)

Affaldsmangel øger import (Article in Ingeniøren, 2 March, 2013)

Odense tillader køkkenkværne (Article in Ingeniøren, 24 April, 2013)

Rapport: Affald kan fordoble dansk biogas (Article in Ingeniøren, 24 April, 2012)

Forskere: Kompostering af vores haveaffald er hul i hovedet (Article in Ingeniøren, 23 March, 2012)

Affaldseksperter: Fordelene ved genanvendelse har aldrig været større (Article in Ingeniøren, 9 March, 2012)

 

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